424 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP, order and defending Persian rights, and the energy and skill with which he conducted his last campaign must be set against his previous failures. He marched first to Yezd, which had rebelled, and then to Kerman, and in both provinces succeeded in reviving public confidence. In Khorasan, Khusru Mirza opened the campaign by the siege of Turshiz. The fall of this fortress caused many of the leading chiefs to submit, but the Ilkhani of Kuchan refused to come to terms. Amirabad, a Kurdish strong- hold near Chinaran, was taken, and Abbas Mirza had the utmost difficulty in stopping the massacre of its inhabi- tants. Kuchan was next besieged, and the rebel Ilkhani in the end submitted and was deposed in favour of his son. Sarakhs was the next Persian objective. The Khan of Khiva had advanced to its neighbourhood, but retreated upon hearing of the success of the Persian arms and so deserted the Salor Turkoman of Sarakhs. This historical city, which owed its importance to its position at a ford of the Tejen on the great road between Nishapur and Merv, had become a notorious centre of the slave trade, and it was known that there were three thousand Shia captives within its walls. Abbas Mirza^ after futile negotiations, allowed an hour for the unconditional surrender of the fortress, and when the time had elapsed assaulted and captured it The Turkoman were massacred,, the slaves were released, and enormous booty was collected. This blow dealt to the Turkoman resounded through- out Central Asia. The Khan of Khiva was permitted to ransom five thousand Salor prisoners at ten tomans a head, but Abbas Mirza stipulated that the Salors should escort, and be responsible for, the safety of Persian caravans; that they should agree to have no dealings with slave- dealers ; and, finally, that they should pay tribute and furnish a contingent of horsemen when required, Anglo - Russian ^Antagonism in Central Asia, — The campaign against Herat in which Persia now engaged was the ultimate cause of the first Afghan war, and it may therefore be well, before describing the operations.